1. Infection

Infection

Infection is a pathophysiological process that involves the invasion and colonization of a living organism (host) by disease-causing infectious agents, the reaction of host tissues to these agents and the toxins they produce, and the transmission of infectious agents to other hosts. Common infectious agents include viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes, arthropods, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammals often engage both innate and adaptive immune systems to eliminate infectious agents or inhibit their growth and transmission. When infection occurs, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs exist, depending on the type of organism targeted; they include antibacterial (antibiotic), antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic agents.

Infection Related Products (8988):

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-17589A
    Chloroquine 54-05-7 99.82%
    Chloroquine is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine is an autophagy and toll-like receptors (TLRs) inhibitor. Chloroquine is highly effective in the control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in vitro (EC50=1.13 μM)[1][2][3][4].
    Chloroquine
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride 25316-40-9
    Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin) hydrochloride, a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a potent human DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitor with IC50s of 0.8 μM and 2.67 μM, respectively. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy[1][2][3].
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride
  • HY-100558
    Bafilomycin A1 88899-55-2
    Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with IC50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. Bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic, is also used as an autophagy inhibitor at the late stage. Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. Bafilomycin A1 induces apoptosis[1][2][3].
    Bafilomycin A1
  • HY-Y0320
    Dimethyl sulfoxide 67-68-5
    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an aprotic solvent that dissolves polar and non-polar compounds, including water-insoluble therapeutic and toxic agents. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has a strong affinity for water and can rapidly penetrate or enhance the penetration of other substances into biological membranes. Dimethyl sulfoxide also has potential free radical scavenging and anticholinesterase effects and may affect coagulation activity. Dimethyl sulfoxide also induces histamine release from mast cells but is thought to have low systemic toxicity. Dimethyl sulfoxide also exhibits antifreeze and antibacterial properties[1][2][3].
    MCE provides Dimethyl sulfoxide that complies with the inspection standards (Ch.P) of Part 4 of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 Edition).
    Dimethyl sulfoxide
  • HY-10108
    LY294002 154447-36-6
    LY294002 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively[1]. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM[2]. LY294002 is a competitive DNA-PK inhibitor that binds reversibly to the kinase domain of DNA-PK with an IC50 of 1.4 μM. LY294002 is an apoptosis activator[3].
    LY294002
  • HY-14648
    Dexamethasone 50-02-2 99.86%
    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, apoptosis inducer, and common disease inducer in experimental animals, constructing models of muscle atrophy, hypertension, and depression. Dexamethasone can inhibit the production of inflammatory miRNA-155 exosomes in macrophages and significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory factors in neutrophils and monocytes. Dexamethasone also has potential for use in COVID-19 research[1][2][3][4].
    Dexamethasone
  • HY-B0215
    Acetylcysteine 616-91-1
    Acetylcysteine (N-Acetylcysteine) is a mucolytic agent which reduces the thickness of the mucus. Acetylcysteine is a ROS inhibitor[1]. Acetylcysteine is a cysteine precursor, prevents hemin-induced ferroptosis by neutralizing toxic lipids generated by arachidonate-dependent activity of 5-lipoxygenases[5]. Acetylcysteine induces cell apoptosis[2][3]. Acetylcysteine also has anti-influenza virus activities[7].
    Acetylcysteine
  • HY-15141
    Staurosporine 62996-74-1
    Staurosporine is a potent, ATP-competitive and non-selective inhibitor of protein kinases with IC50s of 6 nM, 15 nM, 2 nM, and 3 nM for PKC, PKA, c-Fgr, and Phosphorylase kinase respectively. Staurosporine also inhibits TAOK2 with an IC50 of 3 μM. Staurosporine is an apoptosis inducer[1][2][3][4][5].
    Staurosporine
  • HY-B1743A
    Puromycin dihydrochloride 58-58-2
    Puromycin dihydrochloride (CL13900 dihydrochloride), an aminonucleoside antibiotic, inhibits protein synthesis[1].
    Puromycin dihydrochloride
  • HY-B0988
    Deferoxamine mesylate 138-14-7
    Deferoxamine mesylate (Deferoxamine B mesylate) is an iron chelator (binds to Fe(III) and many other metal cations), is widely used to reduce iron accumulation and deposition in tissues. Deferoxamine mesylate upregulates HIF-1α levels with good antioxidant activity. Deferoxamine mesylate also shows anti-proliferative activity, can induce apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. Deferoxamine mesylate can be used in studies of diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases as well as anti-cancer and anti-COVID-19[1][2][3][4][5].
    Deferoxamine mesylate
  • HY-13629
    Etoposide 33419-42-0
    Etoposide (VP-16; VP-16-213) is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Etoposide inhibits topoisomerase II, thus stopping DNA replication. Etoposide induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy[1].
    Etoposide
  • HY-17561
    G-418 disulfate 108321-42-2
    G-418 disulfate (Geneticin sulfate), is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. G-418 disulfate is commonly used as a selective agent for eukaryotic cells[1].
    G-418 disulfate
  • HY-100381
    Nigericin sodium salt 28643-80-3
    Nigericin sodium salt is an antibiotic from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that works by acting as an H+, K+, and Pb2+ ionophore, a NLRP3 activator[1].
    Nigericin sodium salt
  • HY-16592
    Brefeldin A 20350-15-6
    Brefeldin A (BFA) is a lactone antibiotic and a specific inhibitor of protein trafficking. Brefeldin A blocks the transport of secreted and membrane proteins from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus[1][2]. Brefeldin A is also an autophagy and mitophagy inhibitor[3]. Brefeldin A is a CRISPR/Cas9 activator[5]. Brefeldin A inhibits HSV-1 and has anti-cancer activity[5].
    Brefeldin A
  • HY-10586
    5-Azacytidine 320-67-2
    5-Azacytidine (Azacitidine; 5-AzaC; Ladakamycin) is a nucleoside analogue of cytidine that specifically inhibits DNA methylation. 5-Azacytidine is incorporated into DNA to covalently trap DNA methyltransferases and contributes to reverse epigenetic changes[1][2]. 5-Azacytidine induces cell autophagy[4].
    5-Azacytidine
  • HY-13433
    Thapsigargin 67526-95-8
    Thapsigargin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, is an inhibitor of microsomal Ca2+-ATPase. Thapsigargin efficiently inhibits coronavirus (HCoV-229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) replication in different cell types[1][2][3][4][5].
    Thapsigargin
  • HY-13434
    Ionomycin 56092-81-0
    Ionomycin (SQ23377) is a potent, selective calcium ionophore and an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces conglobatus. Ionomycin (SQ23377) is highly specific for divalent cations (Ca>Mg>Sr=Ba). Ionomycin (SQ23377) promotes apoptosis. Ionomycin also induces the activation of protein kinase C (PKC)[1][2][3].
    Ionomycin
  • HY-B0490
    Hygromycin B 31282-04-9
    Hygromycin B is an aminoglycoside antibiotic active against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
    Hygromycin B
  • HY-16561
    Resveratrol 501-36-0
    Resveratrol (trans-Resveratrol; SRT501), a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin that possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and anti-cancer properties. Resveratrol (SRT 501) has a wide spectrum of targets including mTOR, JAK, β-amyloid, Adenylyl cyclase, IKKβ, DNA polymerase. Resveratrol also is a specific SIRT1 activator[1][2][3][4]. Resveratrol is a potent pregnane X receptor (PXR) inhibitor[5]. Resveratrol is an Nrf2 activator, ameliorates aging-related progressive renal injury in mice model[6]. Resveratrol increases production of NO in endothelial cells[7].
    Resveratrol
  • HY-107202
    Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid 24939-03-5 99.40%
    Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly(I:C)) is a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA and an agonist of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5). Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid can be used as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance innate and adaptive immune responses, and to alter the tumor microenvironment. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid can directly trigger cancer cells to undergo apoptosis[1][2].
    Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid