1. Apoptosis
  2. Apoptosis


Apoptosis is a distinctive form of cell death exhibiting specific morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, genomic DNA fragmentation, and exposure of specific phagocytosis signaling molecules on the cell surface. Cells undergoing apoptosis differ from those dying through necrosis. Necrotic cells are usually recognized by the immune system as a danger signal and, thus, resulting in inflammation; in contrast, apoptotic death is quiet and orderly.

There are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: The intrinsic pathway, also called the Bcl-2-regulated or mitochondrial pathway, is activated by various developmental cues or cytotoxic insults, such as viral infection, DNA damage and growth-factor deprivation, and is strictly controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The extrinsic or death-receptor pathway is triggered by ligation of death receptors (members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, such as Fas or TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1)) that contain an intracellular death domain, which can recruit and activate caspase-8 through the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD; also known as MORT1) at the cell surface. This recruitment causes subsequent activation of downstream (effector) caspases, such as caspase-3, -6 or -7, without any involvement of the BCL-2 family.

Studies suggest that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Treatments designed to specifically alter the apoptotic threshold may have the potential to change the natural progression of some of these diseases.

Apoptosis Related Products (3057):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride Inducer
    Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin) hydrochloride, a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a potent human DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitor with IC50s of 0.8 μM and 2.67 μM, respectively. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy[1][2][3].
  • HY-10108
    LY294002 Inducer
    LY294002 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively[1]. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM[2]. LY294002 is a competitive DNA-PK inhibitor that binds reversibly to the kinase domain of DNA-PK with an IC50 of 1.4 μM. LY294002 is an apoptosis activator[3].
  • HY-B0015
    Paclitaxel Inducer 99.97%
    Paclitaxel is a naturally occurring antineoplastic agent and stabilizes tubulin polymerization. Paclitaxel can cause both mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death. Paclitaxel also induces autophagy[1][2].
  • HY-13259
    MG-132 Inducer
    MG-132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al) is a potent proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 100 nM and 1.2 μM, respectively. MG-132 effectively blocks the proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome complex. MG-132, a peptide aldehyde, also is an autophagy activator. MG-132 also induces apoptosis[1][2][3].
  • HY-100558
    Bafilomycin A1 Inducer
    Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with IC50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. Bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic, is also used as an autophagy inhibitor at the late stage. Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. Bafilomycin A1 induces apoptosis[1][2][3].
  • HY-W014666S
    Xanthurenic acid-d4
    Xanthurenic acid-d4 is the deuterium labeled Xanthurenic acid[1]. Xanthurenic acid is a putative endogenous Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, on sensory transmission in the thalamus[2].
  • HY-107020
    BMS 310705 Inducer
    BMS 310705 (21-Aminoepothilone B) is an analog of Epothilone B (HY-17029), targeting to malignancies such as ovarian, renal, bladder, and lung carcinoma. BMS 310705 induces significant apoptosis via mitochondrial-mediated pathway[1].
  • HY-W020050S
    Cystamine-d8 (dihydrochloride)
    Cystamine-d8 (dihydrochloride) is the deuterium labeled Cystamine (dihydrochloride)[1]. Cystamine (dihydrochloride) is the disulfide form of the free thiol, cysteamine. Cystamine is an orally active transglutaminase (Tgase) inhibitor. Cystamine also has inhibition activity for caspase-3 with an IC50 value of 23.6 μM. Cystamine can be used for the research of severals diseases including Huntington's disease (HD)[2][3][4].
  • HY-12755
    ML141 Activator 99.71%
    ML141 (CID-2950007) is a potent, allosteric, selective and reversible non-competitive inhibitor of Cdc42 GTPase. ML141 inhibits Cdc42 wild type and Cdc42 Q61L mutant with EC50s of 2.1 and 2.6 μM, respectively. ML141 shows low micromolar potency and selectivity against other members of the Rho family of GTPases (Rac1, Rab2, Rab7). ML141 do not show cytotoxicity in multiple cell lines[1][2].
  • HY-147767
    PI3Kα-IN-6 Inducer
    PI3Kα-IN-6 (Compound 5b) is a PI3Kα inhibitor. PI3Kα-IN-6 exhibits anticancer potential and no toxicity in normal cells. PI3Kα-IN-6 increases generation of ROS, reduces mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and induces apoptosis[1].
  • HY-B0863S2
    Glyphosate-d2-1 is the deuterium labeled Glyphosate[1]. Glyphosate is an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants[2].
  • HY-N2492
    (E)-Methyl 4-coumarate Inducer 99.83%
    (E)-Methyl 4-coumarate (Methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate), found in several plants, such as Allium cepa or Morinda citrifolia L. leaves. (E)-Methyl 4-coumarate cooperates with Carnosic Acid in inducing apoptosis and killing acute myeloid leukemia cells, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.
  • HY-18085
    Quercetin Inducer
    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4 μM, 3.0 μM and 5.4 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively[1].
  • HY-114250
    Cantrixil Inducer 99.84%
    Cantrixil (TRX-E-002-1), an active enantiomer of TRX-E-002, is a second-generation super-benzopyran (SBP) compound. Cantrixil increases phosphorylated c-Jun levels resulting in caspase-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Cantrixil has potent pan anti-cancer activity against a broad range of cancer phenotypes[1][2].
  • HY-70063
    Buparlisib Inducer 99.90%
    Buparlisib (BKM120; NVP-BKM120) is a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, with IC50s of 52, 166, 116 and 262 nM for p110α, p110β, p110δ and p110γ, respectively.
  • HY-P4157
    FOXO4-DRI Inducer
    FOXO4-DRI is a cell-permeable peptide antagonist that blocks the interaction of FOXO4 and p53. FOXO4-DRI is a senolytic peptide that induces apoptosis of senescent cells[1].
  • HY-N0255
    alpha-Hederin Activator
    alpha-Hederin (α-Hederin), a monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin, exhibits promising antitumor potential against a variety of human cancer cell lines. alpha-Hederin could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of gastric cancer accompanied by glutathione decrement and reactive oxygen species generation via activating mitochondrial dependent pathway[1].
  • HY-N6706
    Enniatin complex Activator
    Enniatin complex is a mixture of cyclohexadepsipeptides isolated largely from Fusarium species of fungi, and has ionophoric, antibiotic, and in vitro hypolipidaemic properties. Enniatin complex inhibits enzymes like acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyl transferase and induces apoptosis in several cancer lines [1][2].
  • HY-147906
    Anticancer agent 71 Inducer
    Anticancer agent 71 (Compound 4b) is a potent anticancer agent and induces apoptosis. Anticancer agent 71 arrests cell cycle at G2/M phase and induces apoptosis through upregulating Bax, Ikb-α and cleaved PARP and downregulating Bcl-2 expression levels. Anticancer agent 71 shows antiproliferative activity[1].
  • HY-10984S2
    Pomalidomide-d4 is the deuterium labeled Pomalidomide. Pomalidomide, the third-generation immunomodulatory agent, acts as molecular glue. Pomalidomide interacts with the E3 ligase cereblon and induces degradation of essential Ikaros transcription factors<