1. Apoptosis
  2. Apoptosis

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a distinctive form of cell death exhibiting specific morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, genomic DNA fragmentation, and exposure of specific phagocytosis signaling molecules on the cell surface. Cells undergoing apoptosis differ from those dying through necrosis. Necrotic cells are usually recognized by the immune system as a danger signal and, thus, resulting in inflammation; in contrast, apoptotic death is quiet and orderly.

There are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: The intrinsic pathway, also called the Bcl-2-regulated or mitochondrial pathway, is activated by various developmental cues or cytotoxic insults, such as viral infection, DNA damage and growth-factor deprivation, and is strictly controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The extrinsic or death-receptor pathway is triggered by ligation of death receptors (members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, such as Fas or TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1)) that contain an intracellular death domain, which can recruit and activate caspase-8 through the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD; also known as MORT1) at the cell surface. This recruitment causes subsequent activation of downstream (effector) caspases, such as caspase-3, -6 or -7, without any involvement of the BCL-2 family.

Studies suggest that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Treatments designed to specifically alter the apoptotic threshold may have the potential to change the natural progression of some of these diseases.

Apoptosis Related Products (3682):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride Inducer
    Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin) hydrochloride, a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a potent human DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitor with IC50s of 0.8 μM and 2.67 μM, respectively. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy[1][2][3].
  • HY-10071
    Y-27632 Modulator 99.97%
    Y-27632 is an orally active, ATP-competitive inhibitor of ROCK-I and ROCK-II, with Kis of 220 and 300 nM, respectively. Y-27632 attenuates Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of human cardiac stem cells. Y-27632 also suppresses dissociation-induced apoptosis of murine prostate stem/progenitor cells. Y-27632 primes human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to selectively differentiate towards mesendodermal lineage via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like modulation[1][2][3][4][5][6][7].
  • HY-13259
    MG-132 Inducer
    MG-132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al) is a potent proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 100 nM and 1.2 μM, respectively. MG-132 effectively blocks the proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome complex. MG-132, a peptide aldehyde, also is an autophagy activator. MG-132 also induces apoptosis[1][2][3].
  • HY-100558
    Bafilomycin A1 Inducer
    Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with IC50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. Bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic, is also used as an autophagy inhibitor at the late stage. Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. Bafilomycin A1 induces apoptosis[1][2][3].
  • HY-13757A
    Tamoxifen Inducer 99.92%
    Tamoxifen (ICI 47699) is an orally active, selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which blocks estrogen action in breast cells and can activate estrogen activity in other cells, such as bone, liver, and uterine cells[1][2][3]. Tamoxifen is a potent Hsp90 activator and enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen also potent inhibits infectious EBOV Zaire and Marburg (MARV) with IC50 of 0.1 µM and 1.8 µM, respectively[5]. Tamoxifen activates autophagy and induces apoptosis[4]. Tamoxifen also can induce gene knockout of CreER(T2) transgenic mouse[6].
  • HY-W010800A
    Cholesterol hemisuccinate Tris salt Inhibitor
    Cholesterol hemisuccinate Tris salt (CHS-Tris) is an ionizable anionic detergent that stabilizes large unilamellar vesicles. CHS-Tris and Lauryl Maltose Neopentyl Glycol (LMNG) or n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside (DDM) are used together for the solubilization of membrane proteins while maintaining structural integrity and activity. Cholesteryl succinate also reportedly exhibits antiproliferative activity.
  • HY-121204
    Iberverin Inducer
    Iberverin (-Methylthiopropyl isothiocyanate) is a sulforaphane homolog. Iberverin has anticancer activity. Iberverin inhibits cell proliferation and migration. Iberverin induces mitochondrial-related apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species[1].
  • HY-N10611
    Elsinochrome A Inducer
    Elsinochrome A is a perylene quinone photosensitizer, and can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce apoptosis and autophagy under light excitation. Elsinochrome A also shows antifungal activity against C. albicans biofilm through photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). Elsinochrome A can be used for research of photodynamic therapy (PDT) (Ex: 460 nm)[1][2].
  • HY-P1007
    Z-VEID-FMK Inhibitor
    Z-VEID-FMK (Z-VE(OMe)ID(OMe)-FMK) is a selective and irreversible caspase-6 peptide inhibitor. Z-VEID-FMK alleviates the S-(+)-ketamine-induced augmentation of caspase-6 activity, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis[1][2].
  • HY-12755
    ML141 Inducer 99.87%
    ML141 (CID-2950007) is a potent, allosteric, selective and reversible non-competitive inhibitor of Cdc42 GTPase. ML141 inhibits Cdc42 wild type and Cdc42 Q61L mutant with EC50s of 2.1 and 2.6 μM, respectively. ML141 shows low micromolar potency and selectivity against other members of the Rho family of GTPases (Rac1, Rab2, Rab7). ML141 do not show cytotoxicity in multiple cell lines[1][2].
  • HY-147767
    PI3Kα-IN-6 Inducer
    PI3Kα-IN-6 (Compound 5b) is a PI3Kα inhibitor. PI3Kα-IN-6 exhibits anticancer potential and no toxicity in normal cells. PI3Kα-IN-6 increases generation of ROS, reduces mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and induces apoptosis[1].
  • HY-B0863S2
    Glyphosate-d2-1
    Glyphosate-d2-1 is the deuterium labeled Glyphosate[1]. Glyphosate is an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants[2].
  • HY-N2492
    (E)-Methyl 4-coumarate Inducer 99.87%
    (E)-Methyl 4-coumarate (Methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate), found in several plants, such as Allium cepa or Morinda citrifolia L. leaves. (E)-Methyl 4-coumarate cooperates with Carnosic Acid in inducing apoptosis and killing acute myeloid leukemia cells, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.
  • HY-18085
    Quercetin Inducer
    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4 μM, 3.0 μM and 5.4 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively[1].
  • HY-N1839
    3-Hydroxybakuchiol Inducer
    3-Hydroxybakuchiol can be isolated from Otholobium mexicanum J. W. Grimes. 3-Hydroxybakuchiol is an electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitor. 3-Hydroxybakuchiol has antitumor activity, and induces tumor cell apoptosis. 3-Hydroxybakuchiol also has moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50: 345 μM)[1][2].
  • HY-114250
    Cantrixil Inducer 99.84%
    Cantrixil (TRX-E-002-1), an active enantiomer of TRX-E-002, is a second-generation super-benzopyran (SBP) compound. Cantrixil increases phosphorylated c-Jun levels resulting in caspase-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Cantrixil has potent pan anti-cancer activity against a broad range of cancer phenotypes[1][2].
  • HY-70063
    Buparlisib Inducer 99.90%
    Buparlisib (BKM120; NVP-BKM120) is a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, with IC50s of 52, 166, 116 and 262 nM for p110α, p110β, p110δ and p110γ, respectively.
  • HY-125542
    DCZ3301 Inducer
    DCZ3301 is a potent aryl-guanidino inhibitor. DCZ3301 inhibits cell proliferation, induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. DCZ3301 inhibits the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway by downregulating the protein expression of PI3K and phosphorylation of AKT. DCZ3301 can be used in research of cancer[1].
  • HY-P4157
    FOXO4-DRI Inducer 99.87%
    FOXO4-DRI is a cell-permeable peptide antagonist that blocks the interaction of FOXO4 and p53. FOXO4-DRI is a senolytic peptide that induces apoptosis of senescent cells[1].
  • HY-N0255
    alpha-Hederin Activator
    alpha-Hederin (α-Hederin), a monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin, exhibits promising antitumor potential against a variety of human cancer cell lines. alpha-Hederin could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of gastric cancer accompanied by glutathione decrement and reactive oxygen species generation via activating mitochondrial dependent pathway[1].