1. Autophagy
  2. Autophagy

Autophagy

Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation and recycling process in the lysosome. In mammalian cells, there are three primary types of autophagy: microautophagy, macroautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Microphagy captures cargoes by means of invaginations or protrusions of the lysosomal membrane directly, CMA uses chaperones to identify cargo proteins and then unfolds and transfers them into the lysosomal, while macroautophagy sequesters cargo by autophagosomes-de novo synthesized of double-membrane vesicles-and subsequently transport it to the lysosome.

Macroautophagy is the best studied and it occurs at a low level constitutively and can also be further induced under stress conditions, such as nutrient or energy starvation with a salient feature of autophagy protein degradation. Stress-induced macrophagy plays an important role in protein catabolism with another key protein degradation pathway, the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS).

As the study progressed, autophagy gains its importance under basal, nutrient-rich conditions, and is now recognized as a critical housekeeping pathway in catabolism of diverse cellular constituents, such as protein aggregates (aggrephagy), lipid droplets (lipophagy), iron complex (Ferritinophagy) and carbohydrate. Except for macromolecules, autophagy can also target several organelles and structures, such as mitochondria (mitophagy), peroxisome (pexophagy), endoplasmic reticulum (reticulophagy or ER-phagy), ribosome (ribophagy), spermatozoon-inherited organelles following fertilization (allophagy), secretory granules within pancreatic cells (zymophagy) and intracellular pathogens (xenophagy).

Autophagy and its dysfunction are associated with a variety of human pathologies, including ageing, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, heart disease and metabolic diseases, such as diabetes. Plenty of drugs and natural products are involved in autophagy modulation through multiple signaling pathways. Small molecules that can regulate autophagy seem to have great potential to intervene such diseases in animal models or clinical courses.

Autophagy Related Products (1135):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-13259
    MG-132 Activator
    MG-132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al) is a potent proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 100 nM and 1.2 μM, respectively. MG-132 effectively blocks the proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome complex. MG-132, a peptide aldehyde, also is an autophagy activator[1][2][3]. MG-132 also induces apoptosis[2].
  • HY-10219
    Rapamycin Inducer
    Rapamycin (Sirolimus; AY 22989) is a potent and specific mTOR inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.1 nM in HEK293 cells. Rapamycin binds to FKBP12 and specifically acts as an allosteric inhibitor of mTORC1[1]. Rapamycin is an autophagy activator, an immunosuppressant[2].
  • HY-19312
    3-Methyladenine Inhibitor
    3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a PI3K inhibitor. 3-Methyladenine is a widely used inhibitor of autophagy via its inhibitory effect on class III PI3K[1].
  • HY-17394
    Cisplatin Activator
    Cisplatin (CDDP) is an antineoplastic chemotherapy agent by cross-linking with DNA and causing DNA damage in cancer cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy[1][2][3].
  • HY-10108
    LY294002
    LY294002 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively[1]. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM[2]. LY294002 is a competitive DNA-PK inhibitorr that binds reversibly to the kinase domain of DNA-PK with an IC50 of 1.4 μM. LY294002 is an apoptosis activator[3].
  • HY-13260A
    CCT128930 hydrochloride Inducer
    CCT128930 hydrochloride is a potent and selective inhibitor of AKT (IC50=6 nM). CCT128930 hydrochloride has 28-fold selectivity over the closely related PKA kinase (IC50=168 nM) through the targeting of Met282 of AKT (Met173 of PKA-AKT chimera), as well as 20-fold selectivity over p70S6K (IC50=120 nM). CCT128930 hydrochloride induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and autophagy. Antitumor activity[1][2].
  • HY-Y1269
    Ammonium chloride Inhibitor
    Ammonium chloride, as a heteropolar compound with pH value regulation, can cause intracellular alkalization and metabolic acidosis thus effecting enzymatic activity and influencing the process of biological system. Ammonium chloride is an autophagy inhibitor[1][2].
  • HY-141813
    Autophagy-IN-C1 Inhibitor
    Autophagy-IN-C1 not only induces apoptosis but also blocks autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride Inducer
    Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin) hydrochloride, a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a potent human DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitor with IC50s of 0.8 μM and 2.67 μM, respectively. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy[1][2][3].
  • HY-100558
    Bafilomycin A1 Inhibitor
    Bafilomycin A1 is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with IC50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. Bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic, is also used as an autophagy inhibitor at the late stage. Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. Bafilomycin A1 induces apoptosis[1][2][3].
  • HY-10162
    Olaparib Activator 99.98%
    Olaparib (AZD2281; KU0059436) is a potent and orally active PARP inhibitor with IC50s of 5 and 1 nM for PARP1 and PARP2, respectively. Olaparib is an autophagy and mitophagy activator[1][2][3][4].
  • HY-17589A
    Chloroquine Inhibitor 99.50%
    Chloroquine is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine is an autophagy and toll-like receptors (TLRs) inhibitor. Chloroquine is highly effective in the control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in vitro (EC50=1.13 μM)[1][2][3][4].
  • HY-B0015
    Paclitaxel Inducer 99.97%
    Paclitaxel is a naturally occurring antineoplastic agent and stabilizes tubulin polymerization. Paclitaxel can cause both mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death. Paclitaxel also induces autophagy[1][2].
  • HY-15531
    Venetoclax Activator
    Venetoclax (ABT-199; GDC-0199) is a highly potent, selective and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 inhibitor with a Ki of less than 0.01 nM. Venetoclax induces autophagy[1][2][3].
  • HY-10182
    Laduviglusib Inducer
    Laduviglusib (CHIR-99021) is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. Laduviglusib shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. Laduviglusib is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. Laduviglusib enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. Laduviglusib induces autophagy[1][2][3].
  • HY-10256
    Adezmapimod Inducer 99.92%
    Adezmapimod (SB 203580) is a selective and ATP-competitive p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50s of 50 nM and 500 nM for SAPK2a/p38 and SAPK2b/p38β2, respectively. Adezmapimod inhibits LCK, GSK3β and PKBα with IC50s of 100-500-fold higher than that for SAPK2a/p38. Adezmapimod does not disrupt JNK activity and is an autophagy and mitophagy activator[1].
  • HY-B0988
    Deferoxamine mesylate Activator
    Deferoxamine mesylate is an iron chelator that binds free iron in a stable complex, preventing it from engaging in chemical reactions.
  • HY-14648
    Dexamethasone Activator 99.86%
    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. Dexamethasone also significantly decreases CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression on neutrophils, and CD11b and CD18 expression on monocytes. Dexamethasone is highly effective in the control of COVID-19 infection. Dexamethasone inhibits production of exosomes containing inflammatory microRNA-155 in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory responses.
  • HY-15371
    Forskolin Activator
    Forskolin (Coleonol) is a potent adenylate cyclase activator with an IC50 of 41 nM and an EC50 of 0.5 μM for type I adenylyl cyclase[1]. Forskolin is also an inducer of intracellular cAMP formation[2]. Forskolin induces differentiation of various cell types and activates pregnane X receptor (PXR) and FXR[3]. Forskolin exerts a inotropic effect on the heart, and has platelet antiaggregatory and antihypertensive actions. Forskolin also induces autophagy[4][5].
  • HY-13418A
    Dorsomorphin Activator
    Dorsomorphin (Compound C) is a selective and ATP-competitive AMPK inhibitor (Ki=109 nM in the absence of AMP). Dorsomorphin (BML-275) selectively inhibits BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3, and ALK6. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy[1][2].