1. Epigenetics
  2. MicroRNA

MicroRNA

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a naturally occurring class of small (approximately 22 nucleotides long) non-coding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression to control cellular processes, development, cell differentiation, and homeostasis. MicroRNAs are essential for embryo, cell, and tissue development, regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, hence their importance in human reproduction. Meanwhile, abnormal expression or function of miRNAs are found to be closely associated with the occurrence or development of various human diseases, including cancers. In light of their significant roles in physiology and pathology, miRNAs are emerging as novel biomolecular targets for chemical-biological studies, including regulation and detection.

Multiple steps are involved in the generation of miRNAs. Most miRNAs are produced by the canonical biogenesis pathway, which involves transcription by RNA polymerase II to make a primary transcript (pri-miRNA) and cleavage by the microprocessor complex to yield a hairpin precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) in the nucleus. The pre-miRNA is then exported into the cytoplasm, where cleavage by the enzyme Dicer creates a double-stranded RNA duplex. Only a single strand from the double-stranded RNA duplex forms the mature miRNA and is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which guides the binding of Argonaute (AGO) proteins in the RISC to the 3’untranslated region (UTR) to either repress protein translation or promote mRNA degradation. In addition to canonical miRNA biogenesis pathways, non-canonical microprocessor-independent or Dicer-independent miRNA biogenesis pathways also exist. Despite miRNAs being mostly involved in the down-regulation of gene expression, there are reports of miRNAs promoting gene expression. In addition, relationships between miRNAs and their targets are not always one-to-one in a specific cell type. In fact, a single miRNA may regulate many mRNA targets, and conversely, a single mRNA target also can be regulated by many miRNAs.

MicroRNA Related Products (18457):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-100574A
    Cl-amidine hydrochloride Activator
    Cl-amidine hydrochloride is an orally active peptidylarginine deminase (PAD) inhibitor, with IC50 values of 0.8 μM, 6.2 μM and 5.9 μM for PAD1, PAD3, and PAD4, respectively. Cl-amidine hydrochloride induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Cl-amidine hydrochloride induces microRNA (miR)-16 (miRNA-16, microRNA-16) expression and causes cell cycle arrest. Cl-Amidine hydrochloride prevents histone 3 citrullination and neutrophil extracellular trap formation, and improves survival in a murine sepsis model[1][2][3][4][5].
  • HY-N0177
    Diosgenin Inhibitor
    Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, can inhibit STAT3 signaling pathway[1]. Diosgenin is an exogenous activator of Pdia3/ERp57[2]. Diosgenin inhibits aortic atherosclerosis progression by suppressing macrophage miR-19b expression[5].
  • HY-R04602
    MicroRNA Mimic Negative Control
    MicroRNA Mimic Negative Control is a miRNA mimic of 21-nucleotides, and can be used as a negative control.
  • HY-122575
    Aurintricarboxylic acid Modulator
    Aurintricarboxylic acid is a nanomolar-potency, allosteric antagonist with selectivity towards αβ-methylene-ATP-sensitive P2X1Rs and P2X3Rs, with IC50s of 8.6 nM and 72.9 nM for rP2X1R and rP2X3R, respectively[1]. Aurintricarboxylic acid is a potent anti-influenza agent by directly inhibiting the neuraminidase[2]. Aurintricarboxylic acid is an inhibitor of topoisomerase II and apoptosis[3]. Aurintricarboxylic acid is a selective inhibitor of the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling pathway[4]. Aurintricarboxylic acid also acts as a cystathionine-lyase (CSE) inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.6 μM[5]. Aurintricarboxylic acid is a modifier of miRNAs that regulate miRNA function, with an IC50 of 0.47 µM[6].
  • HY-16560
    Camptothecin
    Camptothecin (CPT), a kind of alkaloid, is a DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I) inhibitor with an IC50 of 679 nM[1]. Camptothecin (CPT) exhibits powerful antineoplastic activity against colorectal, breast, lung and ovarian cancers, modulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activity by changing microRNAs (miRNA) expression patterns in human cancer cells[2][3].
  • HY-RI04605A
    mmu-miR-378a-5p antagomir Inhibitor
    mmu-miR-378a-5p antagomirs are chemically-modified oligonucleotides that hybridize with mature miRNAs. The miRNA antagomirs have 2 phosphorothioates at the 5' end, 4 phosphorothioates at the 3' end, 1 cholesterol group at the 3' end, and full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. The miRNA antagomirs strongly compete with mature miRNAs to prevent the complementary pairing of miRNAs and their target genes, thereby inhibiting miRNAs from functioning. Stability of miRNA antagomirs appears to be significantly higher than miRNA inhibitors, they exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, stability and regulatory activity in vivo.
  • HY-RI04605
    mmu-miR-378a-5p inhibitor Inhibitor
    mmu-miR-378a-5p inhibitors are chemically-modified oligonucleotides that hybridize with mature miRNAs. The miRNA inhibitors have full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. The miRNA inhibitors strongly compete with mature miRNAs to prevent the complementary pairing of miRNAs and their target genes, thereby inhibiting miRNAs from functioning.
  • HY-R04605A
    mmu-miR-378a-5p agomir
    mmu-miR-378a-5p agomirs are chemically-modified double-strand miRNA mimics with modified mature miRNA strand: 2 phosphorothioates at the 5' end, 4 phosphorothioates at the 3' end, 3' end cholesterol group, and full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. They are designed to mimic endogenous miRNAs and recommended for miRNA functional studies. Compared with miRNA mimics, they exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, stability and regulatory activity in vivo.
  • HY-R02043A
    hsa-miR-6743-3p agomir
    hsa-miR-6743-3p agomirs are chemically-modified double-strand miRNA mimics with modified mature miRNA strand: 2 phosphorothioates at the 5' end, 4 phosphorothioates at the 3' end, 3' end cholesterol group, and full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. They are designed to mimic endogenous miRNAs and recommended for miRNA functional studies. Compared with miRNA mimics, they exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, stability and regulatory activity in vivo.
  • HY-R01866
    hsa-miR-610 mimic
    hsa-miR-610 mimics are small, chemically synthesized double-stranded RNAs that mimic endogenous miRNAs and enable miRNA functional analysis by up-regulation of miRNA activity.
  • HY-R03320A
    mmu-miR-5626-3p agomir
    mmu-miR-5626-3p agomirs are chemically-modified double-strand miRNA mimics with modified mature miRNA strand: 2 phosphorothioates at the 5' end, 4 phosphorothioates at the 3' end, 3' end cholesterol group, and full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. They are designed to mimic endogenous miRNAs and recommended for miRNA functional studies. Compared with miRNA mimics, they exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, stability and regulatory activity in vivo.
  • HY-RI01909A
    hsa-miR-635 antagomir
    hsa-miR-635 antagomirs are chemically-modified oligonucleotides that hybridize with mature miRNAs. The miRNA antagomirs have 2 phosphorothioates at the 5' end, 4 phosphorothioates at the 3' end, 1 cholesterol group at the 3' end, and full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. The miRNA antagomirs strongly compete with mature miRNAs to prevent the complementary pairing of miRNAs and their target genes, thereby inhibiting miRNAs from functioning. Stability of miRNA antagomirs appears to be significantly higher than miRNA inhibitors, they exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, stability and regulatory activity in vivo.
  • HY-R02807
    mmu-miR-1a-2-5p mimic
    mmu-miR-1a-2-5p mimics are small, chemically synthesized double-stranded RNAs that mimic endogenous miRNAs and enable miRNA functional analysis by up-regulation of miRNA activity.
  • HY-RI00362
    hsa-miR-190b-3p inhibitor
    hsa-miR-190b-3p inhibitors are chemically-modified oligonucleotides that hybridize with mature miRNAs. The miRNA inhibitors have full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. The miRNA inhibitors strongly compete with mature miRNAs to prevent the complementary pairing of miRNAs and their target genes, thereby inhibiting miRNAs from functioning.
  • HY-RI02340A
    hsa-miR-6890-3p antagomir
    hsa-miR-6890-3p antagomirs are chemically-modified oligonucleotides that hybridize with mature miRNAs. The miRNA antagomirs have 2 phosphorothioates at the 5' end, 4 phosphorothioates at the 3' end, 1 cholesterol group at the 3' end, and full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. The miRNA antagomirs strongly compete with mature miRNAs to prevent the complementary pairing of miRNAs and their target genes, thereby inhibiting miRNAs from functioning. Stability of miRNA antagomirs appears to be significantly higher than miRNA inhibitors, they exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, stability and regulatory activity in vivo.
  • HY-RI01469
    hsa-miR-493-5p inhibitor
    hsa-miR-493-5p inhibitors are chemically-modified oligonucleotides that hybridize with mature miRNAs. The miRNA inhibitors have full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. The miRNA inhibitors strongly compete with mature miRNAs to prevent the complementary pairing of miRNAs and their target genes, thereby inhibiting miRNAs from functioning.
  • HY-R03013
    mmu-miR-3113-3p mimic
    mmu-miR-3113-3p mimics are small, chemically synthesized double-stranded RNAs that mimic endogenous miRNAs and enable miRNA functional analysis by up-regulation of miRNA activity.
  • HY-RI03877
    mmu-miR-7066-5p inhibitor
    mmu-miR-7066-5p inhibitors are chemically-modified oligonucleotides that hybridize with mature miRNAs. The miRNA inhibitors have full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. The miRNA inhibitors strongly compete with mature miRNAs to prevent the complementary pairing of miRNAs and their target genes, thereby inhibiting miRNAs from functioning.
  • HY-RI00952A
    hsa-miR-4273 antagomir
    hsa-miR-4273 antagomirs are chemically-modified oligonucleotides that hybridize with mature miRNAs. The miRNA antagomirs have 2 phosphorothioates at the 5' end, 4 phosphorothioates at the 3' end, 1 cholesterol group at the 3' end, and full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. The miRNA antagomirs strongly compete with mature miRNAs to prevent the complementary pairing of miRNAs and their target genes, thereby inhibiting miRNAs from functioning. Stability of miRNA antagomirs appears to be significantly higher than miRNA inhibitors, they exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, stability and regulatory activity in vivo.
  • HY-R03109A
    mmu-miR-376b-3p agomir
    mmu-miR-376b-3p agomirs are chemically-modified double-strand miRNA mimics with modified mature miRNA strand: 2 phosphorothioates at the 5' end, 4 phosphorothioates at the 3' end, 3' end cholesterol group, and full-length nucleotide 2'-methoxy modification. They are designed to mimic endogenous miRNAs and recommended for miRNA functional studies. Compared with miRNA mimics, they exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, stability and regulatory activity in vivo.